Reference The four fundamental states of matter are solid, liquid, gas and plasma, but there others, such as Bose-Einstein condensates and time crystals, that are man-made.
Reference A volcano is an opening in Earth's crust where magma breaks through and when erupting can rain down molten rock, ash and gases. There are several types of volcanoes.
Reference Gases are a state of matter with no fixed shape or volume. They have a lower density than solids and liquids.
Picturesque Mount St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980 and remains the most destructive example of volcanic activity in the United States.
On the Big Island of Hawaii, one of the world's most active volcanoes has been spewing lava since 1983.
The only active volcano on mainland Europe is famous for destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Mount Etna is Italy's largest active volcano. It is also the volcano with the longest record of continuous eruption.
A dramatic burst of evolutionary change, called the Cambrian Explosion, occurred during this period.
The Precambrian was the first super eon of Earth’s history, lasting from about 4.6 billion to 542 million years ago.
Liquid is a state of matter between solid and gas. Molecule are farther apart from one another, giving them space to flow and take on the shape of their container.
Solid is a state of matter in which the molecules are packed closely together and usually arranged in a regular pattern. A solid object has a fixed shape and volume.
In many ways, the history of civilization is the history of chemistry. Humans have always sought to identify, use and change the materials in our environment.
Did you know that Easter eggs are wonderful materials for fun science projects? Try some of these eggs-periments and find out how interesting your eggs can be!
The Devonian Period occurred from 419.2 million to 358.9 million years ago. It is often known as the “Age of Fishes."
The Silurian Period occurred from 443 million to 416 million years ago. It was a time of great environmental changes on Earth and saw the first evidence of life on land.
The Triassic Period occurred between 251 million and 199 million years ago. It was a time when life outside of the oceans began to diversify.
The Permian Period lasted from 298.9 million to 251.9 million years ago. Two groups of animals that dominated the period would later branch into mammals and reptiles.
The Quaternary Period is a geologic time period that encompasses the most recent 2.6 million years — including the present day.
Louis Pasteur was a French chemist who proved that germs cause disease, developed vaccines for anthrax and rabies and created the process of pasteurization.