DNA and Genes
Genes are the blueprints of life. Genes control everything from hair color to blood sugar by telling cells which proteins to make, how much, when, and where. Genes exist in most cells. Inside a cell is a long strand of the chemical DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). A DNA sequence is a specific lineup of chemical base pairs along its strand. The part of DNA that determines what protein to produce and when, is called a gene.
First established in 1985 by Sir Alec Jeffreys, DNA testing has become an increasingly popular method of identification and research. The applications of DNA testing, or DNA fingerprinting within forensic science is often what most people think of when they hear the phrase. Popularized by television and cinema, using DNA to match blood, hair or saliva to criminals is one purpose of testing DNA. It is also frequently used for other benefits, like wildlife studies, paternity testing, body identification, and in studies pertaining to human dispersion.While most aspects of DNA are identical in samples from all human beings, concentrating on identifying patterns called microsatellites reveals qualities specific and unique to the individual. During the early stages of this science, a DNA test was performed using an analysis called restriction fragment length polymorphism. Because this process was extremely time consuming and required a great deal of DNA, new methods like polymerase chain reaction and amplified fragment length polymorphism have been employed.The benefits of DNA testing are ample. In 1987, Colin Pitchfork became the first criminal to be caught as a result of DNA testing. The information provided with DNA tests has also helped wrongfully incarcerated people like Gary Dotson and Dennis Halstead reclaim their freedom.
Researchers used an algorithm to scour databases of bacterial genomes for never-before-seen CRISPR systems.
In a study that included genetic data from more than 1 million people, scientists started to unravel the genetics of cannabis use disorder.
U.K. regulators have approved the use of a CRISPR therapy called Casgevy to treat two inherited blood disorders. But what is it and how does it work?
Redheads are said to experience pain differently than other people and require higher doses of pain medications, depending on the drug used. Why?
A new study has revealed specific gene variants associated with a higher risk of both endometriosis and several digestive disorders, such as IBS and GERD.
Scientists studied genetic samples from more than 7,000 people and linked three genetic variants, inherited from Neanderthals, to increased pain sensitivity.
A new analysis of more than 330,000 genomes has revealed specific gene variants that may be associated with vegetarianism.
One of the smallest chromosomes in humans, the male sex chromosome is the final one to be fully sequenced.
Black hair? Green eyes? More than 160 genes determine your coloration, and their interactions are incredibly complicated.
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