For older men, an antioxidant-rich diet, or multivitamin, may be in order. A study by scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory found that men over 44 with high vitamin-C diets had 20 percent less DNA damage to sperm than their peers who consumed the least vitamin C. Antioxidants, vitamin E, zinc and folate had similar effects, the researchers reported in 2012 in the journal Fertility and Sterility.
Defects to sperm can occur in any of the sex cell's three parts: the head, midpiece (the neck) or the tail, or a combination of these. For instance, a defective sperm could have double heads, small or oversized head, a bent neck, thin midpiece, a tail that's bent, broken or coiled, or multiple tails. Whether these morphological anomalies make for less potent sperm is still up for debate, according to Niederberger, chief of the department of urology at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Take the sperm of the male diving beetle, which is seriously strange: Instead of swimming in the female reproductive tract on their own, individual sperm cells often stick together in pairs, in clusters and even in long chains of hundreds or thousands. And then there are the naked mole rats whose bizarre looks are paired with equally odd sperm: Researchers found most of their sperm can't even swim, with 0.just 0.1 percent considered fast swimmers. Even so the males with mutant sperm fathered offspring.
“Their bodies were rounded, but blunt in front and running to a point behind, and furnished with a long, thin tail,” van Leeuwenhoek wrote in his initial report.
It’s possible that a deep voice sends shivers down a woman’s spine because deep voices are linked with testosterone levels, the researchers wrote. However, a high enough level of testosterone can actually impede sperm production, suggesting that the drop in sperm concentration might be an evolutionary trade-off.