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13 Coronavirus myths busted by science

A Chinese woman holds her protective-mask-wearing dog in Beijing, China, on Feb. 7, 2020 in Beijing, China, amidst the outbreak of the new coronavirus.
A Chinese woman holds her protective-mask-wearing dog in Beijing, China, on Feb. 7, 2020 in Beijing, China, amidst the outbreak of the new coronavirus.
(Image: © Kevin Frayer/Getty Images)

As the novel coronavirus continues to infect people around the world, news articles and social media posts about the outbreak continue to spread online. Unfortunately, this relentless flood of information can make it difficult to separate fact from fiction — and during a viral outbreak, rumors and misinformation can be dangerous.

Here at Live Science, we've compiled a list of the most pervasive myths about the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, the disease it causes, and explained why these rumors are misleading, or just plain wrong. 

Myth: Face masks can protect you from the virus

Standard surgical masks cannot protect you from SARS-CoV-2, as they are not designed to block out viral particles and do not lay flush to the face, Live Science previously reported. That said, surgical masks can help prevent infected people from spreading the virus further by blocking any respiratory droplets that could be expelled from their mouths. 

Within health care facilities, special respirators called "N95 respirators" have been shown to greatly reduce the spread of the virus among medical staff. People require training to properly fit N95 respirators around their noses, cheeks and chins to ensure that no air can sneak around the edges of the mask; and wearers must also learn to check the equipment for damage after each use. 

Myth: You're waaaay less likely to get this than the flu 

Not necessarily. To estimate how easily a virus spreads, scientists calculate its "basic reproduction number," or R0 (pronounced R-nought). R0 predicts the number of people who can catch a given bug from a single infected person, Live Science previously reported. Currently, the R0 for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the disease COVID-19, is estimated at about 2.2, meaning a single infected person will infect about 2.2 others, on average. By comparison, the flu has an R0 of 1.3. 

Perhaps, most importantly, while no vaccine exists to prevent COVID-19, the seasonal flu vaccine prevents influenza relatively well, even when its formulation doesn't perfectly match the circulating viral strains. 

Myth: The virus is just a mutated form of the common cold

No, it's not. Coronavirus is a large family of viruses that includes many different diseases. SARS-CoV-2 does share similarities with other coronaviruses, four of which can cause the common cold. All five viruses have spiky projections on their surfaces and utilize so-called spike proteins to infect host cells. However, the four cold coronaviruses — named 229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1 — all utilize humans as their primary hosts. SARS-CoV-2 shares about 90% of its genetic material with coronaviruses that infect bats, which suggests that the virus originated in bats and later hopped to humans

Evidence suggests that the virus passed through an intermediate animal before infecting humans. Similarly, the SARS virus jumped from bats to civets (small, nocturnal mammals) on its way into people, whereas MERS infected camels before spreading to humans.

Myth: The virus was probably made in a lab

No evidence suggests that the virus is man-made. SARS-CoV-2 closely resembles two other coronaviruses that have triggered outbreaks in recent decades, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and all three viruses seem to have originated in bats. In short, the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 fall in line with what we know about other naturally occurring coronaviruses that made the jump from animals to people.

Myth: Getting COVID-19 is a death sentence

That's not true. About 81% of people who are infected with the coronavirus have mild cases of COVID-19, according to a study published Feb. 18 by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. About 13.8% report severe illness, meaning they have shortness of breath, or require supplemental oxygen, and about 4.7% are critical, meaning they face respiratory failure, multi-organ failure or septic shock. The data thus far suggests that only around 2.3% of people infected with COVID-19 die from the virus. People who are older or have underlying health conditions seem to be most at risk of having severe disease or complications. While there's no need to panic, people should take steps to prepare and protect themselves and others from the new coronavirus.

Myth: Pets can spread the new coronavirus

Probably not to humans. One dog in China contracted a "low-level infection" from its owner, who has a confirmed case of COVID-19, meaning dogs may be vulnerable to picking up the virus from people, according to The South China Morning Post. The infected Pomeranian has not fallen ill or shown symptoms of disease, and no evidence suggests that the animal could infect humans. 

Several dogs and cats tested positive for a similar virus, SARS-CoV, during an outbreak in 2003, animal health expert Vanessa Barrs of City University told the Post. "Previous experience with SARS suggests that cats and dogs will not become sick or transmit the virus to humans," she said. "Importantly, there was no evidence of viral transmission from pet dogs or cats to humans."  

Just in case, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that people with COVID-19 have someone else walk and care for their companion animals while they are sick. And people should always wash their hands after snuggling with animals anyway, as companion pets can spread other diseases to people, according to the CDC. 

Myth: Lockdowns or school closures won't happen in the US

There's no guarantee, but school closures are a common tool that public health officials use to slow or halt the spread of contagious diseases. For instance, during the swine flu pandemic of 2009, 1,300 schools in the U.S. closed to reduce the spread of the disease, according to a 2017 study of the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. At the time, CDC guidance recommended that schools close for between 7 and 14 days, according to the study.

While the coronavirus is a different disease, with a different incubation period, transmissibility and symptom severity, it's likely that at least some school closures will occur. If we later learn that children are not the primary vectors for disease, that strategy may change, Dr. Amesh Adalja, an infectious disease expert at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security in Baltimore, previously told Live Science. Either way, you should prepare for the possibility of school closures and figure out backup care if needed.

Lockdowns, quarantines and isolation are also a possibility. Under section 361 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S. Code § 264), the federal government is allowed to take such actions to quell the spread of disease from either outside the country or between states. State and local governments may also have similar authority.

Myth: Kids can't catch the coronavirus

Children can definitely catch COVID-19, though initial reports suggested fewer cases in children compared with adults. For example, a Chinese study from Hubei province released in February found that of more than 44,000 cases of COVID-19, about only 2.2% involved children under age 19.

However, more recent studies suggest children are as likely as adults to become infected. In a study reported March 5, researchers analyzed data from more than 1,500 people in Shenzhen, and found that children potentially exposed to the virus were just as likely to become infected as adults were, according to Nature News. Regardless of age, about 7% to 8% of contacts of COVID-19 cases later tested positive for the virus.

Still, when children become infected, they seem less likely to develop severe disease, Live Science previously reported

Myth: If you have coronavirus, "you'll know"

No, you won't. COVID-19 causes a wide range of symptoms, many of which appear in other respiratory illnesses such as the flu and the common cold. Specifically, common symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough and difficulty breathing, and rarer symptoms include dizziness, nausea, vomiting and a runny nose. In severe cases, the disease can progress into a serious pneumonia-like illness — but early on, infected people may show no symptoms at all.

U.S. health officials have now advised the American public to prepare for an epidemic, meaning those who have not traveled to affected countries or made contact with people who recently traveled may begin catching the virus. As the outbreak progresses in the U.S., state and local health departments should provide updates about when and where the virus has spread. If you live in an affected region and begin experiencing high fever, weakness, lethargy or shortness of breath, or or have underlying conditions and milder symptoms of the disease, you should seek medical attention at the nearest hospital, experts told Live Science

From there, you may be tested for the virus, though as of yet, the CDC has not made the available diagnostic exam widely available.

Myth: The coronavirus is less deadly than the flu

So far, it appears the coronavirus is more deadly than the flu. However, there's still a lot of uncertainty around the mortality rate of the virus. The annual flu typically has a mortality rate of around 0.1% in the U.S. So far, there's a 0.05% mortality rate among those who caught the flu virus in the U.S. this year, according to the CDC.

In comparison, recent data suggests that COVID-19 has a mortality rate more than 20 times higher, of around 2.3%, according to a study published Feb. 18 by the China CDC Weekly. The death rate varied by different factors such as location and an individual's age, according to a previous Live Science report

But these numbers are continuously evolving and may not represent the actual mortality rate. It's not clear if the case counts in China are accurately documented, especially since they shifted the way they defined cases midway through, according to STAT News. There could be many mild or asymptomatic cases that weren't counted in the total sample size, they wrote. 

Vitamin C supplements will stop you from catching COVID-19 

Researchers have yet to find any evidence that vitamin C supplements can render people immune to COVID-19 infection. In fact, for most people, taking extra vitamin C does not even ward off the common cold, though it may shorten the duration of a cold if you catch one. 

That said, vitamin C serves essential roles in the human body and supports normal immune function. As an antioxidant, the vitamin neutralizes charged particles called free radicals that can damage tissues in the body. It also helps the body synthesize hormones, build collagen and seal off vulnerable connective tissue against pathogens. 

So yes, vitamin C should absolutely be included in your daily diet if you want to maintain a healthy immune system. But megadosing on supplements is unlikely to lower your risk of catching COVID-19, and may at most give you a "modest" advantage against the virus, should you become infected. No evidence suggests that other so-called immune-boosting supplements — such as zinc, green tea or echinacea — help to prevent COVID-19, either. 

Be wary of products being advertised as treatments or cures for the new coronavirus. Since the COVID-19 outbreak began in the United States, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) have already issued warning letters to seven companies for selling fraudulent products that promise to cure, treat or prevent the viral infection. 

Myth: It's not safe to receive a package from China

It is safe to receive letters or packages from China, according to the World Health Organization. Previous research has found that coronaviruses don't survive long on objects such as letters and packages. Based on what we know about similar coronaviruses such as MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, experts think this new coronavirus likely survives poorly on surfaces. 

A past study found that these related coronaviruses can stay on surfaces such as metal, glass or plastic for as long as nine days, according to a study published Feb. 6 in The Journal of Hospital Infection. But the surfaces present in packaging are not ideal for the virus to survive.

For a virus to remain viable, it needs a combination of specific environmental conditions such as temperature, lack of UV exposure and humidity — a combination you won't get in shipping packages, according to Dr. Amesh A. Adalja, Senior Scholar, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, who spoke with Live Science's sister site Tom's Hardware.

And so "there is likely very low risk of spread from products or packaging that are shipped over a period of days or weeks at ambient temperatures," according to the CDC. "Currently, there is no evidence to support transmission of COVID-19 associated with imported goods, and there have not been any cases of COVID-19 in the United States associated with imported goods." Rather, the coronavirus is thought to be most commonly spread through respiratory droplets.

Myth: You can get the coronavirus if you eat at Chinese restaurants in the US

No, you can't. By that logic, you'd also have to avoid Italian, Korean, Japanese and Iranian restaurants, given that those countries have also been facing an outbreak. The new coronavirus doesn't just affect people of Chinese descent.

Editor's Note: This story has been updated to reflected updated knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in children. 

Tia Ghose, Yasemin Saplakoglu and Nicoletta Lanese contributed to this article.

Originally published on Live Science.

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  • PH Deb
    Regarding #2 "
    Myth: You're waaaay less likely to get this than the flu
    Not necessarily. "

    I disagree with the way this is said. At least in most places, you ARE way more likely to get the flu. Although the coronavirus has a higher R0, it is not circulating widely in the United States and most countries. And not only is the flu potentially deadly, illness can last a very long time and cause disability and interruption of your life/career. So people should be taking the flu seriously and get a flu shot. Especially since it could be devastating to get both viruses at the same time.
    Reply
  • ACD421
    admin said:
    There's plenty of nonsense about the coronavirus online. Here are some of the biggest COVID-19 myths out there and the science to explain why they aren't true.

    12 Coronavirus myths busted by science : Read more
    To correct you a dog has tested positive in the last week of one of the infecteds owners. So you might want to correct that. Misinformation is bad.
    Reply
  • deegee
    PH Deb said:
    Regarding #2 "
    Myth: You're waaaay less likely to get this than the flu
    Not necessarily. "

    I disagree with the way this is said. At least in most places, you ARE way more likely to get the flu. Although the coronavirus has a higher R0, it is not circulating widely in the United States and most countries. And not only is the flu potentially deadly, illness can last a very long time and cause disability and interruption of your life/career. So people should be taking the flu seriously and get a flu shot. Especially since it could be devastating to get both viruses at the same time.
    How would anyone know ? They have tested 14,000 people in S Korea in one day, and yet to date the US has only 450 testing kits.By the time they do get enough kits how far will it have spread ?? Ridiculous statement !!
    Reply
  • ACD421
    deegee said:
    How would anyone know ? They have tested 14,000 people in S Korea in one day, and yet to date the US has only 450 testing kits.By the time they do get enough kits how far will it have spread ?? Ridiculous statement !!
    Fun Fact the Flu and Coronavirus can be confused for each other as they have almost identical symptoms the only true distinguishing factor is the horrendous forms viral pneumonia that they both cause but by then you are already hospitalized. GG China won.
    Reply
  • ACD421
    deegee said:
    How would anyone know ? They have tested 14,000 people in S Korea in one day, and yet to date the US has only 450 testing kits.By the time they do get enough kits how far will it have spread ?? Ridiculous statement !!
    Where did you get this lovely 450 testing kits btw? Do you even know how the medical field tests this virus? Lmao it's more about how many they have processed as testing is easy just long as to the way they do it which has about a 3 day turn around even in a rush with RNA testing. That's a saliva or blood test send off to CDC. The viral pneumonia it causes is so unique that the can actually diagnose you faster if it's at that stage with a simple x-ray.
    Reply
  • LouiseL
    The article says: ”Previous research has found that coronaviruses don't survive long on objects such as letters and packages.”

    But viruses, according to many scholarly definitions, are non-living organisms that replicate inside living cells. A non-living organism can’t be killed., though they can be stopped from replicating. That’s part of the problem with viruses and why the diseases they cause can’t easily be treated.. It’s a completey different process from killing a bacterial infection. Bacteria are living organisms that can be killed.. As example, tuberculosis is caused by a bacteria. Small pox, measles, mumps, chicken pox, herpes, AIDS, and shingles are some diseases that are caused by viruses. Viral diseases are difficult or impossible to treat effectively. They can be prevented, however, by a vaccine.

    Viruses are not made out of cells, they can't keep themselves in a stable state, they don't grow, and they can't make their own energy. Even though they definitely replicate and adapt to their environment, viruses are more like androids than real living organisms.”
    https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/cells/viruses/a/are-viruses-dead-or-alive”
    Reply
  • ACD421
    LouiseL said:
    The article says: ”Previous research has found that coronaviruses don't survive long on objects such as letters and packages.”

    But viruses, according to many scholarly definitions, are non-living organisms that replicate inside living cells. A non-living organism can’t be killed., though they can be stopped from replicating. That’s part of the problem with viruses and why the diseases they cause can’t easily be treated.. It’s a completey different process from killing a bacterial infection. Bacteria are living organisms that can be killed.. As example, tuberculosis is caused by a bacteria. Small pox, measles, mumps, chicken pox, herpes, AIDS, and shingles are some diseases that are caused by viruses. Viral diseases are difficult or impossible to treat effectively. They can be prevented, however, by a vaccine.

    Viruses are not made out of cells, they can't keep themselves in a stable state, they don't grow, and they can't make their own energy. Even though they definitely replicate and adapt to their environment, viruses are more like androids than real living organisms.”
    https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/cells/viruses/a/are-viruses-dead-or-alive”
    Firstly, 9 days is still a hell of a long time. Secondly, if you know of bacteriophages then you know viruses can survive longer on inanimate objects if bacteria is on them. Considering the wide range of bacteria in the very air around us at any given time good and bad they could feed and live a lot longer in the right conditions. There are viral robots that eat bacteria. But again they are biological machines. Therefore they are very much alive. Until they aren't. Khanacademy is okay but I wouldn't put that much stock in a link from them as my proof.
    Reply
  • yaknala
    If this report is correct, then why is there under 3,00 deaths from SARS2 and over 79,000 from flu world wide figures?
    The infection RO is still holding at 2.2 that means around 1 - 4 people can be infected from each person with the virus.
    The main reason for all this hype and news about SARS 2 is, it has an incubation period of up to 14 days, where the flu shows within 24 hours.
    Why no "Warnings" about the way the flu has killed and infected many more people that this virus?
    Even with a vaccine for flu, no vaccine for SARS 2 Yet, as testing has only just started earlier this week?
    Reply
  • LouiseL
    ACD421 said:
    Firstly, 9 days is still a hell of a long time. Secondly, if you know of bacteriophages then you know viruses can survive longer on inanimate objects if bacteria is on them. Considering the wide range of bacteria in the very air around us at any given time good and bad they could feed and live a lot longer in the right conditions. There are viral robots that eat bacteria. But again they are biological machines. Therefore they are very much alive. Until they aren't. Khanacademy is okay but I wouldn't put that much stock in a link from them as my proof.

    How about this from https://microbiologysociety.org/publication/past-issues/what-is-life/article/are-viruses-alive-what-is-life.html
    “No, viruses are not alive.”
    or this from http://www.virology.ws/2004/06/09/are-viruses-living/:

    “Viruses are not living things. Viruses are complicated assemblies of molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, but on their own they can do nothing until they enter a living cell. Without cells, viruses would not be able to multiply. Therefore, viruses are not living things.”
    Reply
  • ACD421
    LouiseL said:
    How about this from https://microbiologysociety.org/publication/past-issues/what-is-life/article/are-viruses-alive-what-is-life.html
    “No, viruses are not alive.”
    or this from http://www.virology.ws/2004/06/09/are-viruses-living/:

    “Viruses are not living things. Viruses are complicated assemblies of molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, but on their own they can do nothing until they enter a living cell. Without cells, viruses would not be able to multiply. Therefore, viruses are not living things.”
    You used something from 2004 and a duality argument paper in which scientists argue both sides. Bacteriophages exist in the air and water around the world, in your body and on all organic surfaces. These papers only prove the point they are alive and without a host they would die. Much like a bacterial seed or a parasite. Just because it is parasitic in nature doesn't mean it's not alive. There is a spark of life once certain conditions are met. When a sperm and egg meet life starts. Much like organics and a virus. To say a sperm or an egg would also be incorrect. I love wherever you got your degree. I will assume it is stamped by Google. Or better yet Khan Academy.

    https://m.phys.org/news/2015-09-evidence-viruses-alive.html
    Here is something more recent stay woke my friend.

    😂😂😂😂😂😂
    Reply