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Photos of Flightless Birds: All 18 Penguin Species

Macaroni penguins

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(Image credit: Commander Richard Behn, NOAA Corps)


This species, with its signature orange tuft, is found from subantarctic regions to the Antarctic Peninsula. Macaroni penguins are rated vulnerable due to climate change , overfishing and chronic oil pollution.

Little blue penguins

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(Image credit: dreamstime)


These are the smallest penguins in the world, and are found on Australia and New Zealand. While they are not considered endangered, they are losing some habitat due to urban encroachment.

Royal penguins

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(Image credit: Mike Usher, National Science Foundation)


This species native to the waters around Antarctica is considered vulnerable. Here are baby royal penguins on Macquarie Island, which is also home to king, gentoo and rockhopper penguins.

Erect-crested penguins

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(Image credit: dreamstime)


This penguin found on offshore islands of New Zealand is endangered, most likely due to disease, prey availability and climate change. They have seen a roughly 70 percent population decline over 20 years.

Fiordland penguins

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(Image credit: Taronga Zoo)


Another New Zealand penguin, this vulnerable species is strongly impacted by mammals that have been introduced to the island by humans. These two female penguins, Chalky and Milford, live at the Taronga Zoo in Austraila.

Yellow-eyed penguins

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(Image credit: dreamstime)


These New Zealand penguins are endangered, primarily due to habitat encroachment from agriculture. Here, a yellow eyed penguin looks aside on the beach at Curio Bay, New Zealand South Island.

Snares penguins

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(Image credit: Thomas Mattern, University of Otago)


Also native to New Zealand, this species has lost about 13 percent of its population over 10 years.

Clara Moskowitz
Clara Moskowitz
Clara has a bachelor's degree in astronomy and physics from Wesleyan University, and a graduate certificate in science writing from the University of California, Santa Cruz. She has written for both Space.com and Live Science.