An Adelie penguin couple in a photo taken by George Levick, a surgeon and zoologist aboard Captain Scott's 1910 South Pole expedition.
A group of Adelie penguins on Cape Adare in a photo taken by Levick. Cape Adare holds the world's largest Adelie penguin colony.
Some of the penguin sexual acts observed by Levick, such as necrophilia and what Levick considered "rape," or sexual coercion, shocked and repulsed the zoologist.
Levick kept his notes on the penguins in two separate notebooks, one of which was for the "depraved" sexual acts he observed. The notebook, some coded in Greek, is being displayed until Sept. 2, 2012 at the Natural History Museum's exhibition "Scott's Last Expedition."
All Lined Up
Another page of Levick's notebook showing the Adelie penguins of Cape Adare.
Adélie Penguins on the ice-foot at Cape Adare in the Antarctic, shown here in a photo taken by George Murray Levick, a member of Robert Scott's Terra Nova Expedition.
Live Science newsletter
Stay up to date on the latest science news by signing up for our Essentials newsletter.
Jeanna served as editor-in-chief of Live Science. Previously, she was an assistant editor at Scholastic's Science World magazine. Jeanna has an English degree from Salisbury University, a master's degree in biogeochemistry and environmental sciences from the University of Maryland, and a graduate science journalism degree from New York University. She has worked as a biologist in Florida, where she monitored wetlands and did field surveys for endangered species. She also received an ocean sciences journalism fellowship from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.