A 3D reconstruction of a Paleolithic skull has revealed one of the oldest cases of brain damage. The child, who died 100,000 years ago, suffered severe head trauma (the lesion is shown with arrows and in close-up in panel D). The child survived for several years after the brain-stunting blow.
The child's body came from Qafzeh cave in Galilee, Israel, which also harbored many other skeletons, such as this reconstruction of another skull from the site.
Though a fracture was clearly visible, researchers created a cast of the internal space in the skull, as well as using 3D computed tomography (CT) scanning to understand the nature of the trauma.
The reconstruction revealed that the child experienced a compound fracture, with bits of skull depressed inward.
The blow stunted the child's brain growth, with brain size (shown here as the dot labeled Qafzeh 11) akin to that of a 6- or 7-year old, even though the child died at age 13.
As the child probably couldn't have survived on his or her own, other humans must have cared for the child. The find may be one of the oldest examples of compassion in modern humans.