Bone artifacts unearthed at Lapa do Santo, a cave in central Brazil with some of the oldest evidence of human occupation in South America
Skull with teeth removed
Here, a skull from the site shows evidence of tooth removal.
This pit was first excavated in 2009. Over the past several years, scientists have learned more about the rituals that ancient people in the region used to deal with the dead.
Here, a skull peeks out of the rock at burial 16 of Lapa do Santo.
This damaged, 8,500-year-old mandible shows evidence of systematic mutilation, with the teeth removed.
Lapa do Santo wasn't just a burial site, however; it also harbored many other archeological remains, such as this fish hook.
Excavating the site
Lisi Muller exhumes a burial at Lapa do Santo in 2016.
A hematite axe was amongst the artifacts unearthed at Lapa do Santo. The site has thousands of years of evidence of human habitation, including human burials, food remains and stone tools.