Each week we uncover the most interesting and informative articles from around the world, here are 10 of the coolest stories in science this week.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of microdolomite grains (490 times magnification) recovered from inside a gas hydrate beneath nearly 200 feet of seafloor sediment.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of microdolomite grains (490 times magnification) recovered from inside a gas hydrate beneath nearly 200 feet of seafloor sediment.
Credit: Glen Snyder, Meiji University Gas Hydrate Research Laboratory

Buried hundreds of feet under the ocean bottom in the Sea of Japan, where bone-chilling temperatures and intense pressure discourage most forms of life, there live some very hardy microbes. Their deep-sea secret? They hunker down in pockets inside tiny mineral grains, which are then sealed into deep-sea crystals. [Read more about the crystals.]

There's a chance that the dimly lit super-Earth called Barnard b, which orbits Barnard's star, could support life. Here, an artist's impression of the planet's frozen surface.
There's a chance that the dimly lit super-Earth called Barnard b, which orbits Barnard's star, could support life. Here, an artist's impression of the planet's frozen surface.
Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

There's a rocky planet out there that's very big and cold. Its sun, a red dwarf named "Barnard's star" looks much larger in its sky than Earth's. It bathes the planet in X-rays and ultraviolet light, likely enough radiation to strip away any atmosphere. But Barnard's star is also much dimmer than Earth's host star, so the planet's surface is probably a frozen wasteland — the sort of place that likely wouldn't have any liquid water, and that most scientists wouldn't expect to support life. [Read more about the possibilities.]

A hydra with too little of a protein called Sp5 develops multiple heads.
A hydra with too little of a protein called Sp5 develops multiple heads.
Credit: © BRIGITTE GALLIOT, UNIGE

The tiny, immortal hydra is a freshwater animal that can regenerate an entirely new animal from just the tiniest sliver of its body. Usually, it does this perfectly: One foot, one long skinny body, and one tentacled head. [Read more about the creations.]

What did the Vikings really believe about the Norse gods like Odin?
What did the Vikings really believe about the Norse gods like Odin?
Credit: Shutterstock

Today, the name "Thor" likely conjures up an image of a well-muscled Chris Hemsworth playing the Norse-inspired superhero on the big screen. For the actual Vikings, the god of thunder may have similarly been admired for his great feats — but certainly not for his moral fortitude. [Read more about the beliefs.]

Chinese scientists released this image of a cotton plant germinating in its tank on the moon aboard the Chang'e 4 lander. The photograph was taken Jan. 7, 2019.
Chinese scientists released this image of a cotton plant germinating in its tank on the moon aboard the Chang'e 4 lander. The photograph was taken Jan. 7, 2019.
Credit: Chongqing University

They were the little cotton sprouts that could: a handful of seedlings that poked themselves up from the dirt inside a small biosphere on China's lunar lander, Chang'e-4. [Read more about the loss.]

The shape of Earth's magnetic field is the result of both the planet's north and south magnetic poles as well as the stream of particles coming from the sun.
The shape of Earth's magnetic field is the result of both the planet's north and south magnetic poles as well as the stream of particles coming from the sun.
Credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio

Earth's north magnetic pole is on the move, unpredictably lurching away from the Canadian Arctic and toward Siberia. It's wandered so much, that the current representation of the entire globe's magnetic field, just updated in 2015, is now out of date. And so, geologists have come up with a new model. [Read more about the pole.]

Museum researchers used a CT scanner to take nearly 3,000 images of the mummy and discovered that the man may have been the pharaoh Ptolemy II's personal eye doctor.
Museum researchers used a CT scanner to take nearly 3,000 images of the mummy and discovered that the man may have been the pharaoh Ptolemy II's personal eye doctor.
Credit: Museo Arqueológico Nacional/CC BY 4.0

Among the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, queens and religious elites who elected to be immortalized through mummification, there was also at least one ophthalmologist.

In 2016, museum officials put some of their questions to rest when they sent the mummy (along with three other corpses from their collection) to receive computed tomography (CT) scans at the Quirónsalud Madrid University Hospital. [Read more about the mystery.]

Antarctica's ice sheets responded most strongly to the angle of Earth's tilt on its axis when the ice extends into the oceans.
Antarctica's ice sheets responded most strongly to the angle of Earth's tilt on its axis when the ice extends into the oceans.
Credit: Shutterstock

As levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide rise and warm the globe, Antarctica's ice will become more vulnerable to cycles on an astronomical scale, particularly the tilt of our planet is as it spins around its axis. [Read more about the complication.]

Here, the view down the borehole at about 3,500 feet (1,070 meters) below the ice, just above the surface of the subglacial lake in Antarctica.
Here, the view down the borehole at about 3,500 feet (1,070 meters) below the ice, just above the surface of the subglacial lake in Antarctica.
Credit: Kathy Kasic/salsa-antarctica.org

The dark waters of a lake deep beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet and a few hundred miles from the South Pole are teeming with bacterial life, say scientists — despite it being one of the most extreme environments on Earth. [Read more about the lake.]

Follow Live Science @livescience, Facebook & Google+.