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Credit: Hugh H. Iltis (for puna habitat) and Harvey Ballard (for plant)
Not only is the Lilliputian violet among the smallest violets in the world, it is also one of the most diminutive terrestrial dicots. Known only from a single locality in an Intermontane Plateau of the high Andes of Peru, Viola lilliputana lives in the dry puna grassland eco-region.
Specimens were first collected in the 1960s, but the species was not described as a new until 2012. The entire above ground portion of the plant is barely 1 centimeter tall. The plant is named, obviously, for the race of little people on the island of Lilliput in Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels.