In 1872 the U.S. economy was growing as the young nation industrialized and expanded westward. Then in the autumn, a sudden shock paralyzed social and economic life.
Ernest Freeberg is a professor of history at the University of Tennessee Knoxville. His teaching and research interests center on the cultural and intellectual history of the United States in the 19th and early 20th century. He has published several books, including "A Traitor to His Species: Henry Bergh and the Birth of the Animal Rights Movement," (Basic Books, 2020) an "The Age of Edison: Electric Light and the Invention of Modern America" (Penguin, 2013). He holds a PhD from Emory University and a bachelor's degree from Middlebury College.