An article in the September issue of the Journal of Archaeological Science suggests that animal sacrifice powered the economy of ancient Jerusalem.
Landlocked but thriving
Jerusalem was a landlocked and resource poor region. Yet despite that, at its peak, it was a bustling city with 30,000 citizens. Religious texts from the second temple period describe a massive sacrifice system, with 1.2 million animals slaughtered a day. That suggested the economy was buttressed by the huge number of animals sacrificed at the temple. But archaeologists weren't sure whether these descriptions were hyperbole.
Recently, archaeologists discovered a city dump outside the old city walls of Jerusalem. The dump dated to between about 37 B.C. and A.D. 66, and contained an unusually high proportion of animal bones for an agricultural society.
The sheep and goat bones showed cut marks, clear signs of butchery, indicating that the animals were used for meat consumption. Historically, whatever parts of the animal weren't sacrificed as a burnt offering were eaten in feasts.
In addition, an analysis of the chemical isotopes, or elements with different numbers of neutrons, in the bones revealed that they came from far-flung, rural desert locations distant from Jerusalem.
The findings bolster the notion that the economy of Jerusalem at that time was powered by animal sacrifice. During the second temple period, Jews were spread far from Israel, yet they were still religiously required to sacrifice animals. So they probably paid local representatives to herd animals to Jerusalem on their behalf, creating a massive sacrificial economy in the city.